رابطه‌ی علّی ادراک دلبستگی و آسیب‌پذیری شخصیت با احساس تنهایی در دوره‌ی نوجوانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه شیراز (نویسنده مسئول)

2 دانشیار بخش روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر در قالب یک مدل علّی، پیش‌آیندهای احساس تنهایی نوجوانان را مورد بررسی قرار داد. در این مدل ادراک دلبستگی به والدین و هم‌سالان به عنوان متغیرهای برون‌زاد، سبک‌های آسیب‌زای شخصیتی بلات، متغیر واسطه‌ای و احساس تنهایی متغیر درون‌زاد بودند. شرکت‌کنندگان پژوهش 426 دانش‌آموز دختر (204) و پسر (222) سال سوم دبیرستان‌های شهر شیراز بودند. برای اندازه‌گیری متغیرهای پژوهش از فرم کوتاه شده مقیاس احساس تنهایی اجتماعی و عاطفی و پرسشنامه‌های دلبستگی به والدین و هم‌سالان و تجارب افسرده‌ساز استفاده گردید. مدل پیشنهادی پژوهش، با استفاده از نرم افزار AMOS مورد تحلیل مسیر قرار گرفت و برای تعیین معنی داری اثرات غیرمستقیم متغیرهای میانجی از روش نمونه‌گیری‌های مکرر "خودراه انداز" استفاده شد. یافته‌ها حاکی از آن بود که دلبستگی به والدین، هم به طور مستقیم و هم به واسطه‌ی عوامل شخصیتیِ خود انتقادی و وابستگی، پیش‌بینی کننده‌ی منفی و معنی‌دار احساس تنهایی است؛ اما دلبستگی به هم‌سالان تنها به طور مستقیم و منفی پیش‌بینی کننده‌ی معنی‌دار احساس تنهایی است. به عبارت دیگر دلبستگی به والدین هم در شکل‌گیری طرح‌واره‌های بین فردی و هم طرح‌واره‌های درون فردی نقش دارد؛ اما دلبستگی به هم‌سالان تنها در شکل‌گیری طرح‌واره‌های بین فردی سهیم است. نتایج مقایسه‌ی نمودار مسیر دختران و پسران نشان داد که الگوی طرح‌واره‌های پژوهش، در مورد پسران نتایج کاملاً همخوان با یافته‌های کلی گروه نبود.

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