تأثیرآموزش ریاضی به روش جورج پولیا بر مهارت حل مسأله و پیشرفت تحصیلی ریاضی دانش‌آموزان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 معلم

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 هیئت علمی گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

ریاضیات و آموزش آن نقش مهمی در توسعه عملکرد ذهنی و اجتماعی افراد دارد و در دنیای دیجیتالی کنونی، توجه ویژه به آموزش ریاضی بیش از پیش ضرورت پیدا می‌کند. در عین حال، مشکلات زیادی در عملکرد دانش‌آموزان در این درس مشاهده می‌شود. تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر آموزش مهارت حل مسأله به روش جورج پولیا بر مهارت حل مسأله و پیشرفت تحصیلی ریاضی دانش آموزان دختر پایه پنجم دبستان انجام گرفت. روش پژوهش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش، روش نیمه آزمایشی با طرح گروه نامعادل بود. سه دبستان دخترانه از سه منطقه متفاوت شهردزفول از نظر اقتصادی-اجتماعی «بالا شهر، مرکز شهر و پایین شهر» به روش خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب گردید. از هر مدرسه، دو کلاس پایه پنجم انتخاب شد. از طریق انتخاب تصادفی، یک کلاس به عنوان گروه آزمایشی و دیگری به عنوان گروه گواه در نظر گرفته شد. تعداد دانش‌آموزان گروه آزمایشی و گروه گواه هرکدام 65 نفر بود. ابزار اندازه گیری، آزمون محقق ساخته تشریحی در دو مرحله‌ی پیش آزمون و پس آزمون بود. سؤالات آزمون، مولفه‌های درک و فهم، انتخاب راهبرد، محاسبه کردن و ارزیابی به روش حل مسأله‌ی جورج پولیا را می‌سنجید. روایی و پایایی آزمون مورد بررسی و تأیید قرار گرفت. به منظور تحلیل داده‌های پژوهش، از روش تحلیل واریانس چند متغیری و تک متغیری و آزمون t مستقل استفاده گردید. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که آموزش مهارت حل مسأله به دانش‌آموزان بر پیشرفت تحصیلی ریاضی آنان تأثیر مثبت دارد. همچنین، نتایج حاکی از تأثیر آموزش بر درک وفهم، بازنگری و انتخاب راهبرد بود. بر پایه این نتایج، می‌توان گفت مهارت در حل مسأله، امری آموختنی است و باید این مهارت آموزش داده شود تا پیشرفت تحصیلی به ویژه در درس ریاضی حاصل گردد. آموزش این مهارت می‌تواند بخش مهمی از ناکامی دانش‌آموزان در پیشرفت تحصیلی در درس ریاضی را جبران نماید.

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