رابطه شرم، خود دلسوزی و عدم تحمل بلاتکلیفی با نگرش‌های خوردن دانش آموزان دختر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد بیرجند

2 کارشناس ارشد گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بیرجند، خراسان جنوبی، ایران

3 ستادیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بیرجند، خراسان جنوبی، ایران

10.22055/psy.2019.23975.1920

چکیده

یافته‌های پژوهشی نشان می‌دهد دختران نوجوان برای ابتلا به شکل‌های متنوع رفتارهای خوردن مستعدند زیرا آن‌ها به چالش‌های مربوط به‌اندازه، شکل و ظاهر فیزیکی حساس هستند. این پژوهش باهدف بررسی نقش شرم، خود دلسوزی و عدم تحمل بلاتکلیفی در آسیب‌شناسی نگرش‌های خوردن دانش آموزان دختر انجام شد. این پژوهش توصیفی از نوع همبستگی بود و جامعه آماری آن را کلیه دانش آموزان دختر سال سوم مقطع متوسطه شهر بیرجند در سال تحصیلی 96-1395 تشکیل داد. با توجه به حجم جامعه و بر مبنای استفاده از جدول کرجسی/مورگان حجم نمونه 259 برآورد شد. برای گردآوری داده‌ها از مقیاس شرم از تصویر بدنی دیورت و همکاران (2015)، مقیاس شرم از دیگران متیوس و همکاران (2015)، مقیاس خود دلسوزی رایس و همکاران (2011)، مقیاس تحمل‌ناپذیری بلاتکلیفی کارلتون و همکاران (2007) و پرسشنامه نگرش‌های خوردن گارنر و همکاران (1979) استفاده گردید. برای بررسی فرضیه‌های پژوهش تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه بکار رفت. تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه نشان داد که شرم از تصویر بدنی، خوددلسوزی سازگارانه و شرم از دیگران در پیش‌بینی نگرش‌های خوردن نقش دارند و روی‌هم 32 درصد از واریانس این نگرش‌ها را تبیین کردند، اما خوددلسوزی ناسازگارانه و عدم تحمل بلاتکلیفی در تبیین این ارتباط نقشی نداشت. این یافته‌ها بر نقش تسهیل‌کننده توانایی‌های خود دلسوزی و اثرات بیماری‌زای شرم از تصویر بدنی و شرم از دیگران در نگرش‌های خوردن دانش آموزان تأکید دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Ackard, D. M., Fulkerson, J. A. & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2011). Psychological and behavioral risk profiles as they relate to eating disorder diagnoses and symptomatology among a school-based sample of youth. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44(5), 440-446.

Alinezhad, R. (2016). The relationship between factors inventory, test anxiety and academic burnout among students. Thesis for a Master's degree in General Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur Branch. [Persian]

Amini Asl, H. (2016). The role of cognitive fusion, experiential avoidance and self-compassion on psychological distress in veterans. Thesis for a Master's degree in Educational Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Birjnd Branch. [Persian]

Babae, S., Khodapanahi, M. K. & Saleh Sedghpoor, B. (2007). Validating and investigating reliability ‎of the Eating Attitude Test. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 61-68. [Persian]

Braun, T. C., Park, L. C. & Gorin, A. (2016). Self-compassion, body image, and disordered eating: A review of the literature. Body Image, 17, 117-131.

Breines, J., Toole, A., Tu, C. & Chen, S. (2014). Self-compassion, body image, and self-reported disordered eating. Self and Identity, 13, 432-448

Carleton, R. N., Norton, M. A. & Asmundson, G. J. (2007). Fearing the unknown: A short version of the intolerance of uncertainty scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 105-117.

Dezhkam, M. & Nobakht, M. (2000). An epidemiological study of eating disorders in Iran. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 28(3), 265-71.

Doran, J. & Lewis, C. A. (2012). Components of shame and eating disturbance among clinical and non-clinical populations. European Eating Disorders Review, 20, 265-270.

Duarte, C. & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2017). The impact of early shame memories in Binge Eating Disorder: The mediator effect of current body image shame and cognitive fusion. Psychiatry Research, 285, 511-517.

Duarte, C., Ferreira, C. & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2016). At the core of eating disorders: Overvaluation, social rank, self-criticism and shame in anorexia, bulimia and binge eating disorder, Comprehensive Psychiatry. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 66, 123-131.

Duarte, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J., Ferreira, C. & Batista, D. (2015). Body image as a source of shame: A new measure for the assessment of the multifaceted nature of body image shame. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 22, 656-666.

Einstein, D. A. (2014). Extension of the trans diagnostic model to focus on intolerance of uncertainty: A review of the literature and implications for treatment. Clinical Psychology, 21, 280-300.

Ferreira, C., Matos, M., Duarte, C. & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2014). Shame memories and eating psychopathology: The buffering effect of self-compassion. European Eating Disorders Review, 22, 487-494.

Ferreira, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J. & Duarte, C. (2013). Self-compassion in the face of shame and body image dissatisfaction: Implications for eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 14(2), 207-210.

Gholamrezaei, S., Mehrabizade Honarmand, M., Zargar, Y., Davoudi, I. & Bassaknejad, S. (2014). The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy on eating disorder symptoms and the psychosocial performance of female students.Journal of Psychological Achievements, 21(1), 31-54. [Persian]

Gilbert, P. (2009). Introducing compassion-focused therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 15(3), 199–208.

Gois, A. C., Ferreira, C. & Mendes, A. L. (2018). Steps toward understanding the impact of early emotional experiences on disordered eating: The role of self-criticism, shame, and body image shame. Appetite, 1(125), 10-17.

Grabe, S., Hyde, J. S. & Lindberg, S. M. (2007) body objectification and depression in adolescents: The role of gender, shame and rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31,164-175.

Iannaccone, M., D'Olimpio, F. & Cella, S. (2016). Self-esteem, body shame and eating disorder risk in obese and normal weight adolescents: A mediation model. Eating Behaviors, 21, 80-83.

Kelly, A. C., Carter, J. C., Zuroff, D. C. & Borairi, S. (2013). Self-compassion and fear of self-compassion interact to predict response to eating disorders treatment: A preliminary investigation. Psychotherapy Research, 23(3), 252-264.

Kelly, A. C. & Stephen, E. (2016). A daily diary study of self-compassion, body image and eating behavior in female college students. Body Image, 17, 152-160.

Kim, S., Thibodeau, R. & Jorgensen, R. (2011). Shame, guilt, and depressive symptoms: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 68-96.

Konstantellou, A. & Reynolds, M. (2010). Intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitions in a non-clinical sample with problematic and normal eating attitudes. Eating Behaviors, 11, 193-196.

Krejcie, R. V. & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.

Liu, J. L. (2015). Parenting style and disordered eating: The mediating role of shame. Beijing: Peking University.

Mantzios, M., Wilson, J. C. & Linnell, M. (2014). Therole of negative cognition, intolerance of uncertainty, mindfulness, and self-compassion in weight regulation among male army recruits. Mindfulness, 6(3), 545-552.

Matos, M., Ferreira, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J. & Duarte, C. (2014). Eating disorders: when social ranking is shaped by early shame experiences. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 88(1), 38-53.

Matos, M., Pinto-Gouveia, J., Gilbert, P. & Figueiredo, C. (2015). The other as shamer scale–2: Development and validation of a short version of a measure of external shame. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 6-11.

Mustapic, J., Marcinko, D. & Vargek, P. (2015). Eating behaviors in adolescent girls: The role of body shame and body dissatisfaction. Eating and Weight Disorders, 20(3), 329-335.

Neff, K. D. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85-102.

Oliveira, S., Trindade, I. A. & Ferreira, C. (2018). The buffer effect of body compassion on the association between shame and body and eating difficulties. Appetite, 1(125), 118-123.

Oliveira, V. R., Ferreira, C., Mendes, A. L. & Marta-Simoes J. (2017). Shame and eating psychopathology in Portuguese women: Exploring the roles of self-judgment and fears of receiving compassion. Appetite, 1(110), 80-85.

Peymannia, B., Hamid, N. & Mhmudalilu, M. (2014).  The effectiveness of ACT matrix with compassion on self-injury behaviors and quality of life of students with symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorders. Journal of Psychological Achievements, 25(1), 23-44. [Persian]

Pinto-Gouveia, J., Ferreira, C. & Duarte, C. (2014). Thinness in the pursuit for social safeness: An integrative model of social rank mentality to explain eating psychopathology. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 21(2), 154-165.

Raes, F., Pommier, E., Neff, K. D. & Van Gucht, D. (2011). Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the Self-Compassion Scale. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 18, 250-255.

Renjan, V., McEvoy, P. M., Handley, A. C. & Fursland, A. (2016). Stomaching uncertainty: Relationships among intolerance of uncertainty, eating disorder pathology, and comorbid emotional symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 41, 88-95.

Rezaei, M., Aflakseir, A., Yavari, A., Mohamadi, N. & Ghayour, M. (2015). Designing and testing a model of thin internalization, self-objectification and body dissatisfaction as precedents of eating disorder risk in female university students. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology, 10(2), 11-18. [Persian]

Rodgers, R. F., Franko, D. L., Donovan, E., Cousineau, T., Yates, K., McGowan, K., Cook, E. & Lowy, A. S. (2017). Body image in emerging adults: The protective role of self-compassion. Body Image, 22, 148-155.

Schoenefeld, S. J. & Webb, J. B. (2013). Self-compassion and intuitive eating in college women: Examining the contributions of distress tolerance and body image acceptance and action. Eating Behaviors, 14(4), 493-496.

Slater, A., Varsani, N. & Diedrichs, P. C. (2017). The impact of fitspiration and self-compassion instagram images on women’s body image, self-compassion, and mood. Body Image, 22, 87-96.

Vajda, A. & Lang, A. (2014). Emotional abuse, neglect in eating disorders and their relationship with emotion regulation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 131, 386-390.

Wong, M. & Qian, M. (2016). The role of shame in emotional. Eating Behaviors, 23, 41–47.