تبیین فرایند شکل گیری طلاق: یک پژوهش کیفی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، گروه مشاوره، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مشاوره، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

3 استاد، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

4 استادیار/ دانشگاه شهید چمران/ دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی

چکیده

بی‌گمان، طلاق یکی از رویدادهای ناخوشایند زندگی زناشویی است. با توجه به فرایندی، بافتاری و چندبُعدی‌بودن طلاق و کمبود پژوهش‌های کل‌نگر دربارۀ این مسئله، این پژوهش درصدد کشف و تبیین فرایند روان‌شناختی شکل‌گیری طلاق به‌کمک روش «نظریۀ زمینه‌ای» است. مشارکت‌کنندگان این پژوهش را زنان و مردانی تشکیل داده‌اند که طلاق گرفته‌اند و با 27 نفر از آن‌ها به روش هدفمند مصاحبه شده است. دستاورد مرحلۀ کد‌گذاری باز، پانزده طبقۀ اصلی بود. برخی از عوامل علّی عبارت‌اند از: ازدواج نامطلوب، خشونت، پیمان‌شکنی زناشویی و ارتباط ناکارآمد. بعضی از عوامل زمینه‌ای را هم می‌توان این‌گونه برشمرد: خانوادۀ ناکارآمد، موقعیت اقتصادی‌اجتماعی و مشکلات جنسی و روانی و پزشکی زوجین. ضعف راهبردهای مقابله‌ای زوجین، عوامل فرازوجی مؤثر بر طلاق و باورهای ناکارآمد، عوامل مداخله‌گر هستند. عوامل راهبردی دو طبقۀ اصلی انعطاف و ابتکار و نیز انزوا و انفعال را در بر می‌گیرند. پیامدها نیز شامل سه طبقۀ اصلی هستند:‌ 1. ننگ مهر طلاق؛ 2. تحلیل‌رفتگی؛ 3. رهایی از استرس و ایجاد سبک جدید زندگی. نابسندگی مهارت‌های ارتباطی و گسلش عاطفی طبقۀ مرکزی داده‌ها و یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر را شکل می‌دهند.

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