نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه روانشناسی، واحد یاسوج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، یاسوج، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی، واحد یاسوج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، یاسوج، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، واحد یاسوج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، یاسوج، ایران.

10.22055/psy.2023.44034.3058

چکیده

از مهم‌ترین دغدغه‌های نظام‌های آموزشی، ارتقای بهزیستی و عملکرد مطلوب فراگیران است. از آنجا که عوامل فردی و اجتماعی متفاوتی در بهزیستی، سلامت روان و عملکرد مطلوب تأثیرگذار است، مداخلۀ مؤثر برای بهبود و ارتقای آنها ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. هدفِ نویسندگان در این پژوهش، بررسی اثر آموزش مبتنی بر روان‌شناسی مثبت (مدل پرما) بر جهت‌گیری آینده، خودکارآمدی و چشم انداز زمان دانش‌آموزان دختر است. روش پژوهش از نوع طرح‌های نیمه‌آزمایشی با استفاده از اجرای پیش‌آزمون، پس‌آزمون و پیگیری با گروه کنترل بود. در پژوهش حاضر گروه آزمایش تحت آموزش بسته پرما قرار گرفتند و گروه کنترل در لیست انتظار، جامعه آماری کلیه دانش‌آموزان دختر دوره متوسطه دوم (پایه یازدهم) شهر یاسوج در سال تحصیلی 1401-1400 بود. روش نمونه‌گیری، خوشه‌ای چند مرحله‌ای و ابزارهای مورد استفاده، پرسشنامه جهت‌گیری‌آینده ماگیو و همکاران (2016)، مقیاس خودکارآمدی دانش‌آموزان موریس (2001)، مقیاس چشم انداز زمانی زیمباردو (۱۹۹۹) بود. بر پایه نتایج پژوهش، اثر مدل پرما بر جهت‌گیری آینده در گروه مداخله پرما و کنترل در پس‌آزمون معنادار و مثبت است؛ یهمچنین، یافته‌ها نشان داد که اثر آموزش مدل پرما بر چشم انداز زمانی دانش‌آموزان در پس‌آزمون و پیگیری معنادار نیست. بر اساس یافته‌های پژوهش، باید به فرآیندهای برنامه‌ریزی و اجرای مداخله و تلفیق هر دو ویژگی مثبت و منفی عملکرد انسان توجه بیشتری شود؛ چرا که آموزش و تمرین مبتنی بر روان‌شناسی مثبت متمرکز بر آگاهی، می‌تواند مبنای طراحی و اجرای بسیاری از مداخلات باشد

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of education based on positive psychology (perma model) on future orientation, time perspective and self-efficacy in female students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyydeh Razieh Zakarianzadeh 1
  • Qader zadeh Bagheri 2
  • Alireza Maredpour 3

1 * Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Yasouj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Yasouj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Psycology, Islamic Azad University of Yasuj, Iran.

چکیده [English]

One of the most important concerns of educational systems is improving the well-being and optimal performance of learners. Since different individual and social factors have an effect on well-being, mental health and optimal performance, effective intervention seems necessary to improve and promote them. After entering high school, students face problems in social, family, emotional, health, academic, etc., and due to the symmetry of high school with adolescent crises, a person's ability to adapt to the surrounding environment decreases. Adolescents who have problems in adapting to the conditions and roles given to them in the educational environment as a social institution are likely to have problems in other aspects of life and education.
By entering the middle school period, of course, the school and their teachers change, and the students also choose their field of study and start a new educational path, in which many problems are observed in these fields. For example, evidence suggests that high school students have difficulty controlling emotions, feeling effective, and planning for the future and its prospects.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of education based on positive psychology (perma model) on future orientation, self-efficacy and time perspective of female students.

Method
The research method was a semi-experimental design using a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up with a control group. In the present study, the experimental group was trained in perma pack, and the control group was on the waiting list. The statistical population was all female students of the second secondary school (11th grade) of Yasouj city in the academic year of 2021-2022. The sampling method was a multi-stage cluster and the tools used were Maggio et al.'s Future Orientation Questionnaire (2016), Morris Students' Self-Efficacy Scale (2001), and Zimbardo's Time Perspective Scale (1999).

Results
Based on the results of the research, the effect of the Perma model on future orientation in the Perma intervention group and the control group in the post-test is significant and positive; That is, education based on positive psychology leads to the improvement of future orientation and resilience in the post-exam. The findings also showed that the effect of Perma model training on students' self-efficacy in the post-test is significant; That is, education based on positive psychology leads to an increase in cognitive, motivational and metacognitive components of self-efficacy (P<0.05). Also, the findings showed that the effect of Perma model training on students' time perspective in the post-test and follow-up is not significant.

Discussion
Based on the findings of the research, more attention should be paid to the processes of planning and implementing intervention and combining both positive and negative characteristics of human performance; Because training and practice based on positive psychology focused on awareness can be the basis for designing and implementing many interventions. Based on the results of the research, teaching the Perma model promotes future orientation and increases resilience in students; in a way that they are more hopeful and optimistic about achieving mental well-being and about the future. In addition, be positive towards achieving long-term goals and career, academic and personal success plans and develop and improve your abilities. Teaching the skills of positivity, optimism and positive emotion makes students hope for the future and strive to achieve goals instead of giving in to personal and environmental limitations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • positive psychology
  • Perma model
  • future orientation
  • self-efficacy
  • time perspective